Hyperphosphatemia and Chronic Kidney Disease (Dialysis Patients) Glossary of Terms

AV Fistula

Surgically-created connection between an artery and vein that facilitates hemodialysis.

Chronic Kidney Disease

Gradual loss of kidney function; top 10 leading cause of death in the U.S.

Dialysate

The fluid and solutions that pass through the membrane in dialysis.

Dialysis

A treatment used to filter the blood by removing wastes, excess electrolytes and water.

Dietitian

Educates patients in necessary dietary changes for ESRD, and may be responsible for managing phosphate binding medications or making recommendations to the nephrologist.

End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)

The final stage of chronic kidney disease in which kidney function is insufficient to support the body.

Ferritin

A blood cell protein that contains iron; inflammation causes increased serum ferritin. Serum ferritin tests are one measure used to diagnose iron deficiency anemia.

FGF 23

Fibroblast growth factor 23 is a bone-derived protein that plays an essential role in phosphate and vitamin D balance. Low iron levels are associated with increased levels of FGF23. High levels are associated with increased rates of mortality. FGF23 levels rise progressively in CKD

GFR

Glomerular filtration rate indicates how much blood is passing through the glomeruli in the kidneys each minute, basically a measure of kidney function.

Home HD (hemodialysis)

Hemodialysis that can be done at home by the patient as opposed to going to a dialysis center.

Hyperphosphatemia

Abnormally high concentrations of phosphate in the blood.

Hypocalcemia

A deficiency of calcium in the blood.

KDIGO

Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes – Guidelines from the official journal of the International Society of Nephrology.

KDOQI

Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative — the National Kidney Foundations practice guidelines.

LDOs (large dialysis organizations)

Chains that own more than 1000 dialysis clinics. There are two LDOs – Fresenius and Davita – and collectively they treat the majority of U.S. dialysis patients. There are also medium (MDOs) and small (SDOs) chains. HBDCs (hospital-based dialysis centers) are integrated with a hospital.

Nephrologist

Provides ongoing care throughout the course of kidney disease, reviews patients’ medical condition, test results, collaborates with other care team members in dialysis centers

Nephrology/Dialysis Nurse

Serve as care coordinators, provide hemodialysis, train patients for self-care forms of dialysis, visit with patients, and educate patients on healthy behaviors, medications, and diet.

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

A hormone that regulates calcium and phosphorus levels in the body.

Serum

The liquid component of blood, which contains electrolytes, proteins, and other dissolved substances.

Social Worker

Helps dialysis patients and deals with issues such as transportation, financial questions, delivery of in-home services, job retraining, physical therapy, rehabilitation, patient access to medications, and reimbursement.

Stages of CKD

There are five stages of CKD as measured by GFR. Stage 1 = GFR > 90 mL/min; Stage 2 = GFR 60 – 89 mL/min; Stage 3 is moderate CKD = GFR 30 – 59 mL/min; Stage 4 is severe CKD = GFR 15 – 29 mL/min; Stage 5 = GFR <15 mL/min.

Transferrin

A protein that transports iron throughout the body.

Transferrin Saturation (TSAT)

TSAT is the percentage of iron binding by the major plasma iron transport protein, measured in the blood to detect iron excess or deficiency.

Vascular Access

A site on a person’s body where blood is removed and returned during dialysis.

Vitamin D

A nutrient that helps the body absorb calcium from food.

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